Trauma surgery is a specialized surgery procedure, often performed as a treatment for life-threatening and serious injuries usually resulted from impact forces. There may be numerous causes for the impact forces, however, some of the common forces include serious injuries caused from falls, accidents, stabbing wounds, gunshot, crush injuries, sports injuries etc.
The surgeons make use of the triage or pre-determined protocols to evaluate the patient against life threatening conditions. These protocols are very well designed to detect the rate of life threatening condition of the patient at that point of time. The trauma surgeons make use of these protocols very effectively and after ruling out each condition from the protocol, addressing of non-life threatening injuries is done.
Trauma surgery is very critical surgery, because it leaves very little time for the treatment. Most often the complex situations arise and complex decisions have to be made. Most often there is only a little time left for taking decisions and most often with incomplete information.
To deal with the cases of catastrophic incidents surgeons from different specializations form a team, like vascular surgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, cardiothoracic surgeon, neurosurgeon, plastic surgeon, maxillofacial surgeon, etc. Most of the patients reaching the trauma care centres usually have multiple injuries with multiple systems of different organs get already affected. So, the patients of trauma surgery need to undergo several diagnostic studies and surgical procedures.
During the diagnosis, the extent of injuries are assessed with the help of radiographic X-rays, MRIs, CT-Scans, etc. After the assessment, the internal organs that are affected or damaged are identified along with the extent of the damage by that moment.
This very little time after the surgery and before the treatment plan has to be very effectively used by the trauma surgeon and sequence of the procedures is prioritized. Finally overall treatment plan is decided by the trauma surgeon.
After detailed diagnosis and assessment against the protocols, trauma surgeon determines whether the surgery is needed or not. If the surgery is not necessarily to perform immediately to save the life, then resuscitation and stabilization are considered as the key priorities. Later definitive surgical therapy is followed.
Trauma surgery deals with the unique injury or combination of injuries, most often. During the situations where there are limited facilities to handle the different kinds of emergencies and stabilize the patients the complications and risks become more severe.
There can be two different complications possible. The first complication and most serious one is that the injury may be so severe and does not sustain until the treatment is administered and it may result in death of the patient. Most commonly severity of the injury and inability to handle the emergency, because of lack of facilities or medical professionals remain the causes of death. The second complication can be long-term complications or problems like limb amputation, neurological deficits, internal organ damage, loss of organ function and the list is not exhaustive.
Present Trauma Care
However, advances in medical technology are allowing the trauma surgeons to improve understanding the events that may result in mortality and morbidity in major injury conditions.